Ghana (Wagadu), the earliest known empire of the western Sudan, first entered the historical consciousness of North Africa near the end of the eighth century but probably originated long before. The empire's legacy is still celebrated in the name of the Republic of Ghana; apart from this, however, modern-day and ancient Ghana share no direct historical connections. Despite early texts that discuss ancient Ghana, such as The Book of Routes and Kingdoms by the eleventh-century
In the 1570s they established Luanda on the Angolan coast among the Mbundu. In the Indian Ocean, they established bases on Mozambique Island and other towns trying to control the gold trade coming from Monomotapa. On both coasts, not many Portuguese stayed permanently. Other Europeans followed Portuguese patterns by making trading stations through agreement with Africans. Slavery eventually became the main focus of relationships.