Age of Enlightenment
The Age of Enlightenment (or simply the Enlightenment or Age of Reason) was a cultural movement of intellectuals beginning in late 17th-century Europe…
What Was the Enlightenment?
What Was the Enlightenment?-The Enlightenment, also known as the Age of Reason, was a philosophical movement that took place primarily in Europe and, later, in North America, during the late 17thand early 18thcentury. Its participants thought they were illuminating human intellect and culture after the "dark" Middle Ages. Characteristics of the Enlightenment include the rise of concepts such as reason, liberty and the scientific method. Enlightenment philosophy was skeptical of religion
Leonhard Euler (1707 – 1783) was a pioneering Swiss mathematician and physicist. He made important discoveries in fields as diverse as infinitesimal calculus and graph theory. He also introduced much of the modern mathematical terminology and notation, particularly for mathematical analysis, such as the notion of a mathematical function.He is also renowned for his work in mechanics, fluid dynamics, optics, astronomy, and music theory.
Astell is remembered for her ability to debate freely with both contemporary men and women, and particularly for her groundbreaking methods of negotiating the position of women in society by engaging in philosophical debate (Descartes was a particular influence) rather than basing her arguments in historical evidence as had previously been attempted. Descartes' theory of dualism, a separate mind and body, allowed Astell to promote the idea that women as well as men had the ability to reason,
Lady Mary Wortley Montagu - Lady Mary returned to the West with knowledge of the Ottoman practice of inoculation against smallpox, known as variolation. In the 1790s, Edward Jenner developed a safer method, vaccination. In 1727 her husband inherited Wortley Hall, near Barnsley, Yorkshire, and commissioned a major remodelling of the house in 1742.
Lady Mary Wortley Montagu (15 May 1689 – 21 August 1762) was an English aristocrat and writer. Lady Mary is today chiefly remembered for her letters, particularly her letters from Turkey, as wife to the British ambassador, which have been described by Billie Melman as “the very first example of a secular work by a woman about the Muslim Orient”.
The Social Contract by Jean Jacques Rousseau
In The Social Contract (1762) Rousseau argues that laws are binding only when they are supported by the general will of the people. His famous idea, 'man is born free, but he is everywhere in chains' challenged the traditional order of society. Where previous philosophers had spoken of elites, Rousseau became the champion of the common person. His perfect world was one in which the will of the people was most important. His arguments broke down for two reasons: People are born into society, not freedom The general will is a vague, romantic idea that can be adopted as readily by dictators as by democrats
Black History: Thomas Peters, Founder of Nations (Pt 2)
Ignatius Sancho, who had been born into slavery before working as a free man in England; butler to the prominent Montagu family, he later retired and ran a successful grocery business. Sancho was a composer (see his scores here) who also dabbled in acting, and is the first known African man to vote in a British election. (Gainsborough painted his portrait). After his sudden death in 1780, his many letters were collected and published to great literary acclaim.
Joseph Banks 1773 Reynolds-He is credited with introducing the eucalyptus, acacia, and the genus named after him, Banksia, to the Western world. Approximately 80 species of plants bear his name. He was the leading founder of the African Association and a member of the Society of Dilettanti which helped to establish the Royal Academy.
Thomas Paine used this table in 1792 to write the second part of his famous work, The Rights of Man. In the book he argued against hereditary governments and advocated the introduction of income tax to distribute wealth. The British Clio Rickman, Citizen of the World government were outraged and Paine was forced to flee to France. The book was an instant best seller and was read aloud in pubs and coffee shops.
1779-The production of books, newspapers, and journals rose substantially in the German lands in the late eighteenth century. The rise was attributable to a variety of factors, not least the spread of basic literacy during the Enlightenment. The image below attests to the development of a growing, interested readership. But it also speaks to the gendered nature of reading. It is the men who are huddled around the newspaper, presumably engaged in a lively (or even heated) debate